Key Technologies

World's Best Metal Detection Technologies

With over 30 years of excellence, Minelab continually delivers the World’s Best Metal Detection Technologies, creating premium quality products for your greatest detecting advantage. Minelab’s superior technology was initially conceived through the inventive genius of physicist Bruce Candy. His quest to improve metal detector capabilities has resulted in more patents for new metal detection technologies over the past 30 years than any of Minelab’s competitors.

Strongly focused on research and development, Minelab has the largest engineering team in the metal detection industry with more than 30 scientists, engineers and technicians committed to producing the next generation of detectors.

You can view our list of current patents here.

You can read more about the specific technologies in your detector, below:

Zero Voltage Transmission (ZVT)

(used in GPZ 7000 detector)

ZVT (Zero Voltage Transmission) creates ultra‑constant high-power opposite polarity magnetic fields, increasing gold sensitivity. This innovative technology detects gold nuggets at extreme depths.

ZVT technology goes to the NEXT LEVEL for all serious gold prospectors, providing substantially improved depth. No longer will you be limited to using either sine wave continuous VLF transmission detectors, that struggle in mineralised ground, or square wave PI transmission detectors, that can be insensitive to varying gold sizes and compositions.

Minelab's new flagship gold detector, the GPZ 7000 is equipped with exclusive Zero Voltage Transmission (ZVT) technology, developed by Bruce Candy, and state-of-the-art features, the GPZ 7000 offers the deepest ground penetration and represents the most significant advancement in gold detecting technologies in years. This revolutionary gold detector will discover the deepest gold in mineralised ground and has the highest sensitivity available to detect even the smallest traces of gold.

[Click here to read the Knowledge Base Article KBA 24]


(used in GPZ 7000 detector)

The Super‑D smart coil consists of a central transmit winding and two outer receive windings. This configuration greatly decreases interference from magnetic soils, reducing ground noise.


(used in CTX 3030 and GPZ 7000 detectors)

FBS 2 diagram

GPSi uses the high performance and flexibility of a u-blox GPS positioning engine to seamlessly integrate location and time data with detector settings and target information. This creates WayPoint, FindPoint and GeoHunt files that are compatible with XChange 2.


(used in CTX 3030 and GPZ 7000 detectors)

FBS 2 diagram

Wi-Stream uses efficient low-power digital audio transmission to achieve no perceivable audio time lag (<10 ms) from the CTX 3030 / GPZ 7000 to the WM 10 / WM 12. With multiple channel capability, this wireless technology provides reliable communication with maximum sound quality.

Multi Period Sensing (MPS)

(used in GPX Series detectors)

MPS Technology Logo

MPS (Multi Period Sensing) is Minelab’s advanced Pulse Induction (PI) technology that transmits pulses of different time periods. MPS also samples the receive signal at multiple time periods allowing target signals and ground signals to be separated. This effectively removes the ground signal from even the most highly mineralised ground while still being sensitive to both small and deep gold. This achieves superior depth in extremely mineralised ground.


Dual Voltage Technology (DVT)

(used in GPX Series detectors)

DVT Technology Logo

DVT (Dual Voltage Technology) is Minelab’s advanced Pulse Induction technology that uses pulses with two voltage levels to further enhance MPS. The two voltage levels work in combination with the different time period pulses transmitted by MPS to increase the amount of power transmitted into the ground. DVT also allows more of the ground signal to be removed, further increasing detection depth and sensitivity. This achieves ultimate depth in extremely mineralised ground.


Smart Electronic Timing Alignment (SETA)

(used in GPX Series detectors)

SETASETA Technology LogoSETA (Smart Electronic Timing Alignment) is a highly complex method of matching the characteristics of individual Timings with continuous measurements from the surrounding electromagnetic environment, such as the earth’s magnetic field. This gives the advantage of improved detector performance through the complete removal of noise signals. The sensitivity across all Timings is increased, therefore SETA allows more gold to be found than any other metal detector technology.

Multi Period Fast (MPF)

(used in SDC 2300 detector)

MPS Technology LogoMPF (Multi Period Fast) technology incorporates extremely fast Pulse Induction switching between Transmit (Tx) and Receive (Rx) detector signals. Therefore minimal residual transmit signal is present during the receive cycle, enabling clear sharp detection of very small gold.

[Click here to read the Knowledge Base Article]

Very Low Frequency (VLF)

(used in Eureka Gold)

VLF Technology Logo


VLF (Very Low Frequency) is a conventional single frequency sine wave continuous transmission technology. This is the traditional type of technology used in most basic metal detectors. Single frequency sine wave detectors create an electro-magnetic field, which is transmitted into the ground in a continuous wave. While the basic way that the signal is sent out and received back has not changed, the receive signal processing has improved enormously. This has proven to be a reliable and easy to use technology for finding gold.

Selectable Three Frequency Transmission (3F)

(used in Eureka Gold detector)

3F logo22.jpg

3F (Three Frequency) provides three different transmit frequencies in the one metal detector, selectable at the flick of a switch. Each transmit frequency optimises the detector for different size targets and conditions. The three transmit frequencies are:

  • 6.4 kHz - Best for large deep gold nuggets
  • 20 kHz - Best for general gold detecting
  • 60 kHz - Best for small gold nuggets

Having three selectable frequencies gives the versatility that is equivalent to three conventional single frequency detectors.



(used in Eureka Gold detector)


ACCU-TRAKACCU-TRAK continuously measures the level of ground mineralisation while the detector’s coil is swept in search of targets. Any changes in mineralisation, which can occur quite quickly, are analysed and the Ground Balance level automatically adjusted.

ACCU-TRAK ensures the detector is always correctly ground balanced and operating at maximum depth and sensitivity at all times with minimum effort. 


Full Band Spectrum 2 (FBS 2)

(used in CTX 3030 detector)

FBS 2 diagram

FBS 2 combines Minelab's FBS multiple frequency rectangular-wave transmission (1.5 kHz –100 kHz) with advanced digital coil-to-detector communications. The precisely calibrated smart coils and detector electronics allow advanced signal analysis for more accurate detection.

Smartfind 2

Smartfind 2 diagram

Smartfind 2 greatly enhances Minelab's FeCo Discrimination to analyse and display a target's Ferrous (Fe) and Conductive (Co) properties on a full colour LCD.

Ultra-fast microcontrollers carry out digital signal processing to provide significantly improved target separation.

Full Band Spectrum (FBS)

(used in Safari and E-TRAC detectors)

FBS Technology Logocoil-silhouette1.jpg

FBS (Full Band Spectrum) simultaneously transmits, receives and analyses a full band of multiple frequencies. This provides the detector’s electronics with even more information about a target and the surrounding environment than is possible with single frequency or BBS technology. This has a number of advantages, including:

  • High sensitivity across a wide range of target types and sizes, so you only have to cover the ground once.
  • Automatic sensitivity and ground compensation, so maximum depth is achieved even in mineralised ground, including salt water beaches.
  • Extremely accurate multi-channel signal conversion to precisely separate target signals from ground signals for maximum detection depth and high resolution target identification.
  • Smartfind two dimensional discrimination, giving you maximum target information, so that targets can be discriminated by both ferrous and conductive properties simultaneously
FBS great depthFind Every Target Type & Size with Every Sweep

Generally, high transmit frequencies are more sensitive to small targets and low transmit frequencies give more depth on large deep targets. FBS simultaneously transmits and analyses a full band of multiple frequencies from 1.5 kHz to 100 kHz and is therefore sensitive to both very small and large deep targets at the same time. This means you only need to cover the ground once and can be confident you’re not leaving ANY valuable treasure behind.


FBS auto sensitivity.jpgAutomatic Sensitivity & Ground Compensation for Maximum Depth

As you sweep the coil in search of targets, Automatic Sensitivity and Ground Compensation monitor the full band of frequencies for changes in ground mineralisation. Whenever the level of ground mineralisation changes the sensitivity is automatically adjusted to maintain maximum depth. The ground compensation circuitry removes false signals caused by fast changing levels of ground mineralisation. Both of these advanced features work together to maintain maximum detection depth and sensitivity, allowing you to concentrate on listening for targets.


Sigma Delta ADC block diagram.jpgExtremely Accurate Multi-Channel Signal Conversion

FBS uses multiple channelled Sigma-Delta analogue-to-digital converter technology to digitise the analogue signals received by the search coil. This ultra-fast processing, using a digital reference (1 bit DAC), provides the microcontroller (MCU) with detailed information about the ground conditions and targets. This gives FBS the ability to precisely separate target signals from ground signals for maximum detection depth. It also provides Smartfind with the necessary high resolution target data to accurately plot targets.


FBS smartfind.jpg

Smartfind 2D Discrimination (not used in Safari detector)

Minelab’s exclusive 2D Discrimination technology analyses a target’s ferrous (Fe) and conductive (Co) properties simultaneously. This revolutionary approach is the most accurate technology available for determining whether a target is treasure or trash.

The information can be heard as different Fe-Co audio tones, as well as being displayed numerically and graphically on a 2D scale. Individual segments or larger areas of the display can be shaded to reject unwanted targets.

Broad Band Spectrum (BBS)

(used in Excalibur II detector)

BBS Technology Logo
BBS (Broad Band Spectrum) simultaneously transmits, receives and analyses a broad band of multiple frequencies to deliver substantial detection depth, high sensitivity and accurate discrimination for a wide range of target types. This broad band of frequencies provides the detector’s electronics with more information about a target and the surrounding environment than is possible with single frequency technologies. The detector carries out advanced signal processing of these frequencies resulting in improved target identification accuracy and increased depth. This process also significantly reduces false signals from ground minerals, even in harsh and variable conditions, such as salt water beaches.
BBS great depth.jpg

Find Different Target Types & Sizes with Every Sweep

Generally, high transmit frequencies are more sensitive to small targets and low transmit frequencies give more depth on large deep targets. BBS simultaneously transmits and analyses a broad band of multiple frequencies from 1.5 kHz to 25.5 kHz and is therefore sensitive to both small and large deep targets at the same time. This means you only need to cover the ground once, allowing you to find more treasure.


Successive Approx A-D diagram.jpg

Accurate Multi-Channel Signal Conversion

BBS analyses multiple signal channels through a technique called multiplexing (MUX). These signals are compared to a digital reference (Vref. and DAC). The end result is high resolution accurate target signals that can be identified by the detector’s microcontroller (MCU). This analogue-to-digital conversion technique allows BBS to separate ground signals from target signals, achieving great depth and stability in difficult conditions.

RCB - Receive Coil Boost technology logo
BBS Signal Boost

In-Coil Signal Booster

RCB (Receive Coil Boost) circuitry greatly amplifies weak target signals, from small and deep targets, inside the search coil, where the signals are received. This has three main advantages over standard techniques of amplification inside the control box:

  1. Greater immunity to electrical noise, reducing false signals
  2. No loss of signal strength, and faint targets, through the cable
  3. Improved detection depth and sensitivity


(used in GO-FIND Series and X-TERRA Series detectors)

VFLEX Technology Logo

VFLEX uses state of the art digital electronics to enhance standard single frequency detection technology. This has the advantage of providing dependable performance and improved immunity to outside interference. VFLEX technology also has an added advantage that changing the detector’s coil also automatically changes the detector’s operating frequency. This means that an X-TERRA detector can operate at different frequencies allowing the detector to be easily modified to suit different detecting conditions.

VFLEX provides increased detecting performance with perfect sine wave transmission, an in-coil signal booster and coil selectable transmit frequencies.


X-TERRA first digital detector.jpg

World’s First All-Digital Metal Detectors

VFLEX transforms conventional single frequency metal detection technology by including two microcontrollers (miniature computers), one inside the control box and one inside the coil. Every time the detector starts up, the microcontrollers establish communication via a digital data link. The coil microcontroller communicates the coil’s configuration, size and exact frequency, so the control box can generate a perfectly matched transmit signal. This significantly reduces distortion and increases Target ID accuracy.

sinewave X-Terra.jpg

Perfect Sine Wave Transmission

VFLEX technology generates and transmits a perfect high quality sine wave, using the same technology that is found in high quality digital audio players, and is produced without distortion. The removal of distortion maximises power transmitted from the coil, therefore increasing detection depth and sensitivity. This also results in enhanced Target ID accuracy and greater immunity to both ground and environmental noise.

X-TERRA signal boost.jpg

In-Coil Signal Booster

Weak target signals are amplified inside the coil, before the receive signal is sent up the coil cable where interference and signal loss can occur. This technique improves immunity to electrical noise by reducing false signals and increasing target signal strength, therefore improving detection depth and sensitivity.

X-TERRA multi frequencies.jpg

Coil Selectable Transmit Frequencies (not used in GO-FIND Series detectors)

By changing the coil you can change the detector’s frequency, maximising sensitivity and depth for a wide range of target types and conditions. VFLEX gives you three frequencies to choose from: 3 kHz, 7.5 kHz and 18.75 kHz.


Concentric 3kHz Low frequency for deep, large and/or high conductive targets, such as silver, copper, large gold rings and relics
Double D / Concentric 7.5kHz Medium frequency for all-round detecting, good sensitivity and detection depth for all target sizes
Double D / Concentric 18.75kHz High frequency is very sensitive and ideal for jewellery, fine chains and sub-gram gold nuggets

Detector Interference Free Technology (DIF)

(used in PRO-FIND 25 Pinpointer)

DIF technology eliminates interference with an operating metal detector, when it is switched off, by disengaging the coil's magnetic field.

DIF Technology is used in the advanced design of the PRO-FIND 25, it removes false signals and noise, commonly associated with other pinpointers.


(used in E-TRAC detector)

Smartfind is Minelab’s unique two dimensional scale of discrimination. Smartfind graphically represents a target’s ferrous and conductive properties on the same display.

Smartfind is a feature of two Minelab metal detectors; E-TRAC and Explorer SE Pro.

E-TRAC Smartfind:
The horizontal axis rates the target on its size/conductivity (CO), ranging 1–50 from left to right. The vertical axis rates the extent of the target’s ferrous characteristics (FE), ranging 1–35 from top to bottom. A FE value of 1 represents low ferrous characteristics and a value of 35 represents high ferrous characteristics. Similarly, a CO value of 1 represents low conductivity and 50 represents high conductivity.

E-TRAC metal detector Smartfind display

Explorer SE Pro Smartfind:
The vertical axis rates the target on its size/conductivity (CO), ranging 0–31 from bottom to top. The horizontal axis rates the extent of the target’s ferrous characteristics (FE), ranging 0–31 from right to left. A FE value of 0 represents low ferrous characteristics and a value of 31 represents high ferrous characteristics. Similarly, a CO value of 0 represents low conductivity and 31 represents high conductivity.

Explorer metal detector Smartfind display


(used in PRO-SWING 45 detecting harness)

W8 Technology logoW8 technology evenly distributes the detector’s weight, so that even after many hours of detecting you are unable to feel that any specific part of your body is carrying the detector’s weight. This means that you can detect for much longer without feeling any strain.

W8 technology employs three biomechanical strategies to transfer the detector mass (weight) away from the operator’s arm:

  1. remove flexion and extension muscle strain
  2. use solid skeletal structure to support loads
  3. avoid soft tissue anchor points

These effectively remove the need for the arm’s muscles to tense in a flexion extension position while swinging the detector, and therefore prevent the muscle fatigue and soreness that is commonly experienced with metal detecting. W8 technology also allows the arm to freely medially rotate and abduct to swing the detector without the need to hold it up off the ground.

Read the W8 Technology Knowledge Base Article to find out more about W8 technology.